How does the Placenta Help in Immunity?

Our body’s immunological system is made up of human body cells and proteins. It’s a complicated system that defends the body against illness. The immune system remembers which viruses it has fought in the past. So that if a virus of the same sort attacks, the system will be able to kill it. It is the immune system’s most basic function.

The numerous types of cells and chemicals that make up the human immune system are in charge of safeguarding our bodies from pathogens. Pathogens are parasites, fungi, viruses, bacteria, and haptens, among other things, that invade our bodies and make us sick. The transfer of maternal IgG antibodies to the baby through the placenta is an important method that protects the infant when his or her humoral reaction is ineffective. In this post, we’ll learn what is immunisation and how the placenta contributes to newborn babies’ immunity.

Immunisation and its Types

The process by which the body creates antibodies against diseases under the effect of vaccines is known as immunisation. These are mostly used in people and animals to treat bacterial and viral illnesses. Vaccination is the procedure of administering a vaccine to an individual in order to provide immunity against disease.

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Immune System Types

The immune system is organised into numerous sorts of reactions that fight microorganisms. Immunity is divided into three types:

Innate Immunity

Innate (or natural) immunity is a form of inherent protection that we all have. Innate immunity refers to the immunity that is given to us from birth. It refers to the body’s defence mechanism, which aids in the battle against the disease. The skin, for example, serves as a barrier to prevent germs and other disease-causing pathogens from entering the human body.

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive or acquired immunity occurs when an individual develops immunity after birth. Adaptive immunity is something that develops during the course of our life. Adaptive immunity is acquired when we are exposed to infectious diseases and allergies, or when we immunise ourselves against them using vaccines.

Passive immunity

This is a type of immunity that is created by antibodies manufactured outside the body. This immunity is just temporary. Antibodies found in a mother’s breast milk, for example, provide an infant with temporary protection from illnesses.

Placenta and Immunity

The transfer of maternal IgG antibodies to the baby through the placenta is an important method that protects the infant when his or her humoral reaction is ineffective. IgG antibodies are the only ones that cross the human placenta in significant amounts. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to aid in the body’s defence against germs and viruses. The main function of placenta is to provide oxygen and nutrition to your growing baby, while also removing waste items from the blood.

The placenta serves as an anatomical barrier between the mother and the developing fetus during pregnancy. Infectious pathogens may cross the placental barrier, allowing harmful transfer from mother to fetus. The initial line of defence against vertical transmission is innate immune responses mediated by maternal and foetal cells at the decidual-placental interface.

Other important facts about the placenta

The placenta is a disc-shaped organ or special tissue in the uterus of a pregnant mammal that nourishes and protects the fetus through the umbilical cord. It’s a bodily part that connects the developing foetus to the uterine wall, allowing for food absorption, waste removal, thermoregulation, and gas exchange via the mother’s blood supply. The placenta has a high surface area that allows glucose and oxygen to be transported to the embryo. The placenta joins to the uterine wall, from which the baby’s umbilical cord emerges. In exponential situations, the placenta might be connected to the lower portion of the uterus. The low-lying placenta is the name for this type of placenta.

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