Author: Albert

All healthy animals carry a complex microbial flora, part of which may be very specialized and adapted to growth and survival on its host, and part of which may be transient, reflecting the immediate interactions of the animal with its environment. From a topological point of view, the gut is also part of the external surface of an animal but it offers a very specialized environment and the importance of the human gut flora will be dealt with in Chapter 6 The surfaces of humans and other animals are exposed to air, soil and water and there will always be…

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Microbiology is the science which includes the study of the occurrence and significance of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and algae which are the beginning and ending of intricate food chains upon which all life depends. Most food chains begin wherever photosynthetic organisms can trap light energy and use it to synthesize large molecules from carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts forming the proteins, fats and carbohydrates which all other living creatures use for food. Within and on the bodies of all living creatures, as well as in soil and water, micro-organisms build up and change molecules, extracting energy and growth substances.…

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Culture is learned and acquired: Culture is acquired in the sense that there are certain behaviours which are acquired through heredity. Individuals inherit certain qualities from their parents but socio-cultural patterns are not inherited. These are learnt from family members, from the group and the society in which they live. It is thus apparent that the culture of human beings is influenced by the physical and social environment through which they operate. Culture is shared by a group of people: A thought or action may be called culture if it is shared and believed or practiced by a group of…

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Combine equal amounts of clove oil (a natural astringent), chamomile (to maintain skin pigment), and eucalyptus (decongests the skin). Massage gently into the skin by making a circular motion with the tips of your fingers, and rinse. Available in health food stores and some supermarkets, wheat germ oil is effective in keeping the skin elastic and preventing and treating stretch marks. Pregnant women should definitely use it in the tummy and breast areas. Right from the can, Crisco is a big secret among beautiful women. Use it to remove makeup and as a highly effective moisturizer. Hospitals even use it…

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I have had the privilege of working with some big names in the modeling and celebrity world. Each of these great stars possessed the unique ability to go into some kind of trance when sitting behind that mirror. This is a concept that I have found to be a perfectly relaxing and enjoyable way to start the day. Remember that game we used to play as children? Whether it’s just getting a manicure or changing your hair color, just a little something new or different can create a brand-new mind-set. Oh yes, of course, you can always change it back…

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Every beautiful woman that I have interviewed seemed to possess the same trait: agelessness. If I hadn’t been privy to their backgrounds, I would have been hard-pressed to put a “number” on them. You know who these women are—you’ve seen them in a magazine or on TV. You know they are about your age, but they look so much “better.” Don’t necessarily jump to the conclusion that they’ve had extensive plastic surgery. That is not always the case. How do you begin your own “timeless” appearance? Pick up a magazine that might be geared to a different age demographic. Shop…

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Foods, by their very nature, need to be nutritious and metabolizable and it should be expected that they will offer suitable substrates for the growth and metabolism of micro-organisms. Before dealing with the details of the factors influencing this microbial activity, and their significance in the safe handling of foods, it is useful to examine the possible sources of micro-organisms in order to understand the ecology of contamination. DIVERSITY OF HABITAT Viable micro-organisms may be found in a very wide range of habitats, from the coldest of brine ponds in the frozen wastes of Polar Regions, to the almost boiling…

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Both yeasts and molds are eukaryotic, but yeasts are unicellular, whereas molds are multicellular.5,6 Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger (20–100 μm) than prokaryotic cells (1–10 μm). Eukaryotic cells have rigid cell walls and thin plasma membranes. The cell wall does not have peptidoglycan, is rigid, and is composed of carbohydrates. The plasma membrane contains sterol. The cytoplasm is mobile (streaming) and contains organelles (mitochondria, vacuoles) that are membrane bound. Ribosomes are 80S type and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. The DNA is linear (chromosomes), contains histones, and is enclosed in a nuclear membrane. Cell division is by mitosis (i.e.,…

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From the above discussion, it is apparent what, as a discipline, food microbiology has to offer. Before the 1970s, food microbiology was regarded as an applied science mainly involved in the microbiological quality control of food. Since then, the technology used in food production and processing, distribution and retailing, and food consumption patterns have changed dramatically. These changes have introduced new problems that can no longer be solved by merely using applied knowledge. Thus, modern-day food microbiology needs to include a great deal of basic science to understand and effectively solve the microbiological problems associated with food. The discipline includes…

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Molds are important in food because they can grow even in conditions in which many bacteria cannot grow, such as low pH, low water activity (AW), and high osmotic pressure. Many types of molds are found in foods.6,7 They are important spoilage microorganisms. Many strains also produce mycotoxins and have been implicated in foodborne intoxication (see Chapter 28). Some mycotoxins are carcinogenic or mutagenic and cause organ-specific pathology, such as hepatotoxic (liver toxicity) or nephrotoxic (kidney toxicity). Many are used in food bioprocessing. Finally, many are used to produce food additives and enzymes. Some of the most common genera of…

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