Author: Albert

Every beautiful woman that I have interviewed seemed to possess the same trait: agelessness. If I hadn’t been privy to their backgrounds, I would have been hard-pressed to put a “number” on them. You know who these women are—you’ve seen them in a magazine or on TV. You know they are about your age, but they look so much “better.” Don’t necessarily jump to the conclusion that they’ve had extensive plastic surgery. That is not always the case. How do you begin your own “timeless” appearance? Pick up a magazine that might be geared to a different age demographic. Shop…

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Foods, by their very nature, need to be nutritious and metabolizable and it should be expected that they will offer suitable substrates for the growth and metabolism of micro-organisms. Before dealing with the details of the factors influencing this microbial activity, and their significance in the safe handling of foods, it is useful to examine the possible sources of micro-organisms in order to understand the ecology of contamination. DIVERSITY OF HABITAT Viable micro-organisms may be found in a very wide range of habitats, from the coldest of brine ponds in the frozen wastes of Polar Regions, to the almost boiling…

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Both yeasts and molds are eukaryotic, but yeasts are unicellular, whereas molds are multicellular.5,6 Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger (20–100 μm) than prokaryotic cells (1–10 μm). Eukaryotic cells have rigid cell walls and thin plasma membranes. The cell wall does not have peptidoglycan, is rigid, and is composed of carbohydrates. The plasma membrane contains sterol. The cytoplasm is mobile (streaming) and contains organelles (mitochondria, vacuoles) that are membrane bound. Ribosomes are 80S type and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. The DNA is linear (chromosomes), contains histones, and is enclosed in a nuclear membrane. Cell division is by mitosis (i.e.,…

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From the above discussion, it is apparent what, as a discipline, food microbiology has to offer. Before the 1970s, food microbiology was regarded as an applied science mainly involved in the microbiological quality control of food. Since then, the technology used in food production and processing, distribution and retailing, and food consumption patterns have changed dramatically. These changes have introduced new problems that can no longer be solved by merely using applied knowledge. Thus, modern-day food microbiology needs to include a great deal of basic science to understand and effectively solve the microbiological problems associated with food. The discipline includes…

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Molds are important in food because they can grow even in conditions in which many bacteria cannot grow, such as low pH, low water activity (AW), and high osmotic pressure. Many types of molds are found in foods.6,7 They are important spoilage microorganisms. Many strains also produce mycotoxins and have been implicated in foodborne intoxication (see Chapter 28). Some mycotoxins are carcinogenic or mutagenic and cause organ-specific pathology, such as hepatotoxic (liver toxicity) or nephrotoxic (kidney toxicity). Many are used in food bioprocessing. Finally, many are used to produce food additives and enzymes. Some of the most common genera of…

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A complication that poses great difficulties in the management of patients with hemophilia is the appearance of factor VIII inhibitors. These inhibitors are usually immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to factor VIII. Factor VIII inhibitors (antibodies) develop in patients who have received multiple factor VIII replacement therapy. About 5% to 10% of patients with hemophilia have factor VIII inhibitors. The increasing use of factor VIII concentrates increases the risk for development of factor VIII inhibitors; 20% to 30% of severe hemophiliac patients are affected. About 40% of patients with hemophilia with inhibitors are low responders. Patients with hemophilia whose inhibitor levels…

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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, also referred to as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by multiple telangiectatic lesions involving the skin, mucous membranes, and viscera. One form of the disorder, characterized by a high frequency of symptomatic pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and cerebral abscesses, has been identified. Both ENG and ALK-1 encode putative receptors for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily that play a critical role for proper development of the blood vessels.17 lary venules with connections to dilated arterioles, initially through capillaries and later directly. Perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates also are observed. The vessels of HHT show…

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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is a condition in which occult blood loss in the gut may lead to severe iron deficiency anemia. The diagnosis usually is clear from a careful clinical examination, although the telangiectasia are not always as obvious, as in this patient with multiple lesions on the face, lip, and tongue. The patient had received multiple blood transfusions over many years because of HHT-associated gastrointestinal blood loss, and he had developed cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B antigen positivity, probably as a result of transmission of hepatitis B in transfused blood. (From Forbes CD, Jackson WF: Color atlas…

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Hemarthrosis and soft tissue hematomas are seldom found in these patients.4, 8, 11 Patients with hemophilia usually do not bleed abnormally from small cuts such as razor nicks. After larger injuries, however, bleeding out of proportion to the extent of injury is common. This bleeding may be massive and life threatening or it may persist as a slow, continuous oozing for days, weeks, or months. The onset of excessive bleeding usually is delayed. At the time of surgery or injury, hemostasis appears to be normal. Bleeding of sudden onset and serious proportions may develop several hours or even several days…

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App

The first derivative of a function at the point x is the slope of the tangent line at x. All linear functions have a constant derivative because the tangent at every point is the line itself. For instance, the linear function fx = 3x + 2 shown in Figure I.1.1 has first derivative 3. But non-linear functions have derivatives whose value depends on the point x at which it is measured. For instance, the quadratic function fx = 2×2 + 4x + 1 has a first derivative that is increasing with x. It has value 0 at the point x…

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